Senin, 29 Desember 2008

cerdas berfikir dalam kemasan kecil


Dalam setiap bisnis selalu di butuhkan sebuah alat komunikasi yang simple namun pasti.

Penuh dengan fasilitas dan kemampuan tinggi . Dengan fasilitas komunikasi yang canggih di harapkan mampu berkompetisi dengan para pesaingnya.

Hidup ini hanya sekali maka jadikanlah hidupmu lebih bermakna dengan orang lain karena sebaik-baik orang adalah yang bermanfaat bagi orang lain.

Jadikanlah “pikiran” mu sebagai tambang ide yang tak terbatas.ide-itu kan semakin indah dengan adanya kenyataan.amiin.

By sofaree


1catatan harian

teknik mesin unpam

As mentioned in item 3, the verb phrase consists of the main verb and any auxiliaries.

simple present---He walks to school every day.
simple past---He walked to school yesterday.
present progressive (continuous)---He is walking to school now.
past progressive (continuous )---He was walking to school when he saw Jane.
present perfect---He has walked to school several times.
past perfect---He had walked to school before he hurt his foot.

Given here is a list of some of the common irregular verbs in English. It is very important that you know together a verb is regular or irregular. You will notice that regular verbs are the same in the past tense and past participle; however, irregular verbs are very often different in these forms.

This tense is usually not used to indicate present time. However, it is used to indicate present time (now) with the following stative verbs.

know believe hear see smell wish
understand hate love like want sound
have need appear seem taste own

Note: The verbs listed above are almost never used in the present or past progressive (continuous), although it is possible in same cases.

Simple present is used to indicated a regular or habitual action.
John walks to school every day .

Examples of simple present tenses:
They understand the problem now. ( stative verb)
Henry always swims in the evening . ( habitual action )
We want to leave now . ( stative verb )
The coffee tastes delicious. ( stative verb )
Mark usually walks to school. ( habitual verb )
Your cough sounds bad. ( stative verb )


Use the following rule to form the present progressive.

{ am }
Subject + { is } + ( verb + ing )
{ are }

The present progressive is used to indicate present time ( now ) with all but the stative verbs listed previously.
John is eating dinner now.
It is also used to indicated future time.
We are leaving for the theater at seven o’clock.

Examples of present progressive :
The committee members are examining the material now. ( present time )
George is leaving for France tomorrow. ( future time )

Exercise 6 : Simple Present and present Progressive
Choose either the simple present or present progressive in the following sentences.
1 . Something __smells________ ( smell ) very good.
2 . We ____eating________ ( eat ) dinner at seven o’clock tonight.
3 . He _practices_ ( practice ) the piano every day.
4 . They _driving ( drive ) to school tomorrow.
5 . I __believe__ ( believe ) you,.
6 . Maria __has____ ( have ) a cold.
7 . Jorge ___is swimming ( swim ) right now.
8 . John ___hates ( hate ) smoke.
9 . Jill always __gets__ ( get ) up at 6: 00 A.M
10. Jerry ___is mowing ( mow ) the lawn now.


The simple past is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past . The italicized words in the previous sentences are important because they show that simple past is not the same as past progressive or present perfect.

John went to Spain last year.
Bob bought a new bicycle yesterday.


Use the following rule to form the past progressive.

Subject + { was } + [ verb + ing ]
{ were }

The past progressive is used to indicate :
* An action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by another action.In
this case,the general rule is:

when + subject 1 + simple past tense + subject 2 + past progressive….


subject 1 + past progressive + when + subject 2 + simple past tense…

When Mark came home, Martha was watching television.
Martha was watching television when Mark came home.

* Two actions occurring at the same time in the past. In this case, the following rules usually apply.

subject 1 + past progressive + while + subject 2 +past progressive….


while + subject 1 + past progressive + subject 2 + past progressive…

Martha was watching television while John was reading a book.
While John was reading a book, Martha was watching television.

NOTE: The following construction is also possible, but it is not as common as the preceding two.

while + subject 1 + past progressive + subject 2 + simple past….

While Martha was watching television, John read a book.

* An action which was occurring at some specific time in the past.
Martha was watching television at seven o’clock last night.
What were you doing at one o’clock this afternoon?

Examples of past progressive:

John was walking to class when he lost his pen.
The student was reading while the professor was speaking.

Exercise 7: Simple Past Tense and Past Progressive
Use either the simple past tenses or past progressive in the following sentences as appropriate.

1 . Gene ___was eating ( eat ) dinner when his friend called.
2 . While Maria was cleaning the apartment , her husband ___was sleeping_ ( sleep ).
3 . At three o’clock this morning, Eleanor _was studying ( study ).
4 . When Mark arrived , the Johnsons __were having ( have ) dinner , but they
stopped in order to talk to him.
5 . John __went ( go ) to France last year.
6. When then teacher ___entered ( enter ) the room, the students were talking.
7 .While Joan was writing the report , Henry ___was looking ( look ) for more
8 . We __saw ( see ) this movie last night.
9 . At one time , Mr. Roberts __owned ( own ) this building.
10. Jose __ was writing ( write ) a letter to his family when his pencil broke ( break ).


Use the following rule to form the present perfect.

Subject + { has } + [ verb in past participle ]….
{ have }
The present perfect is used to indicate:
* An action that happened at an indefinite time in the past.
John has traveled around the world. ( We don’t know when )
* An action that happened more than once in the past.
George has seen this movie three times.
* An action that began in the past and is still occurring in the present.

John has lived in the same house for twenty years . ( He still lives there ).
John has lived in the same house since 1975 . ( He still there )
If it is now 1995:


Use for + duration of time : for five hours , for thirty years , for ten minutes . Use since + beginning time : since 1975 , since five o’clock, since January.

The adverbs yet and already are used to indicate that something has happened ( or hasn’t happened ) at an unspecified time in the past. These adverbs are often used with the present perfect.

Already ---affirmative sentences
Yet ----negative sentences and question

Note : Already usually appears between the auxiliary and the main verb ; however , it can appear at the beginning or end of the sentence. Yet appears at the end of the sentences.

Subject + { has } + already + [ verb in past participle ]…..
{ have }

Subject + { has } + not [ verb in past participle ]….
{ have}

Examples of yet and already :
We have already written our reports.
We haven’t written our reports yet.

Note : Another option with the use of yet is sometimes possible. In this case , the verb is positive and the adverb yet does not appear at the end of the sentences.

Subject + { has } + yet + [ verb in infinitive ]…
{ have}

John has yet to learn the material = John hasn’t learned the material yet.
We have yet to decide what to do with the money = We haven’t decided what to do with the money yet.

This use of yet should not be confused with the coordinating conjunction yet , which means but.
I don’t have the money ,yet I really need the computer.
My neighbors never have the time, yet they always want to do something on Saturday nights.


For an action that began in the past and is still occurring in the present ( present perfect rules , third item ), it is also possible to use the present progressive
( continuous ) . Use the following rule to form this aspect.

Subject + { has } + been + [ verb + ing ]
{ have}

John has been living in the same house for twenty years.= John has lived in the same house for twenty years.

Examples of present perfect:
Jorge has already walked to school. ( indefinite time )
He has been to California three times. ( more than once )
John has been working in Washington for three years. ( not yet completed )

Exercise 8. Present Perfect and Simple Past
Use either the present perfect or the simple past in the following sentences.
1 . John __written ( write ) his report last night.
2 . Bob __has seen ( see ) this movie before.
3 . .Jorge has read_ ( read ) the newspaper already .
4 . Mr. Johnson ___work ( work ) in the same place for thirty-five years, and he is
is not planning to retire yet.
5 . We_ _haven’t begun ( begin; negative ) to study for the rest yet.
6 . George __went ( go ) to the store at ten o’clock this morning.
7 . Joan ____has traveled ( travel ) around the world.
8 . Betty ___written ( write ) a letter last night.
9 . Guillermo ___called ( call ) his employer yesterday.
10. We __haven’t seen ( see; negative ) this movie yet.


Use the following rule to form the past perfect.

Subject + had + [ verb in past participle ] ….

The past perfect is used to indicate :
An action that happened before another action in the past ; there usually are two action in the sentences.

John had gone to the store before he went home.
1st action 2nd action
Jack told us yesterday that he had visited England in 1970.
2nd action 1st action

The past perfect is usually used with before , after, or when. Study the following formulas.

Subject + past perfect + before + subject + simple past tense

John had gone to the store before he went home

Subject + simple past tense + after + subject + past perfect

John went home after he had gone to the store.

before + subject + simple past tense + subject + past perfect

Before John went home , he had gone to the store.

after + subject + past participle + subject + simple past tense

After John had gone to the store , he went home.

Note : The adverb when can be used in place of before or after in any of these four formulas without change in meaning. We still know which action happened first because of the use of past perfect.

A state which continued for a time in the past, but stopped before now. Note that there ins no connection with the present.

Abdu had lived in New York for ten years before he moved to California.


This past perfect concept can also be conveyed by the past perfect progressive
( continuous ) . Study the following rule.

Subject + had + been + [ verb + ing ]…

Abdu had been living in New York for ten years before he moved to California.

Examples of past perfect :

The professor had reviewed the material before he gave the quiz.
After Henry had visited Puerto Rico , he went to St.Thomas.
After the committee members had considered the consequences, they voted on the proposal.
The doctor had examined the patient thoroughly before he prescribed the medication.
George had been working at the university for forty-five years before he retired.

Exercise 9 : Past Participle and Simple Past
Supply the past perfect or simple past in the following sentences.
1 . The policeman read the suspect his right after he _had arrested ( arrest ) him.
2 . After John __had washed ( wash ) his clothes, he began to study.
3 . George __had waited ( wait ) for one hour before the bus came.
4 . Maria ___entered ( enter ) the university after she had graduated from the
community college.
5 . Jeannette __washed ( wash ) the pipettes after she had completed the
6 . Jane sent a letter to her university after she __had received ( receive ) her
scholarship check.
7 . After the stewardesses had served lunch to the passengers , they __sat__
( sit ) down.
8 . The car _had flipped ( flip ) ten times before it landed on its roof.
9 . We corrected our papers after we had taken ( take ) the quiz.
10. John _lived ( live ) in Miami for one year when his parents came to visit.


The modal auxiliaries have a number of different meaning. They are generally used to indicate something which is potential or uncertain. Remember that a modal is an auxiliary, and thus is NEVER used with do, does, or did. The modals include:

Must ( have to ) Would ( used to )
Should ( ought to ) ( had better )
Had to

Note : Words in parentheses ( ) indicate semi-modals. These have similar meanings to the modals, but are not grammatically the same.


To make a modal negative, add the particle not after the modal.
John would like to leave. John would not like to leave.


To make a question , place the modal at beginning of the sentence.
Would John like to leave?
Note : A modal is always directly followed by the simple form ( verb word ). This is infinitive without to.

To be
To go
To have Be

This means that after a modal there can NEVER be : [ verb + ing ], [ verb + s ], past tense, or infinitive.
There are two ways that a modal can occur:
modal + simple form of the verb
would be could go will have
modal + have + [ verb + in past participle]
would have been could have gone will have had
Note : The word have, of course, must always be in the simple form after a modal : it can never has or had.
Will indicates future certainty.
John will begin the job tomorrow.
Maria will leave in January.


The modals will, would, can, and could often appears in conditional sentences. Usually conditional sentences contain the word if . There are two types of conditionals: the real (factual and habitual) and the unreal (contrary to fact or hypothetical). The real, or “future possible” as it is something called , is used when the speaker expresses an action or situation which usually occurs, or will occur if the circumstances in the main clause are met.
Hypothetical situation : If I am not planning anything for this evening, when someone asks me if I want to go to the movies, I say :

If I have the time , I will go.
x y
( I will go unless I don’t have time.)
( If X is true , then Y is true. )

If my headache disappears , we can play tennis.
( I will play tennis unless I have a headache.)

However, the unreal condition expresses a situation ( past, present, or future ) that would take place or would have taken place if the circumstances expressed were or had different now or in the past.
Hypothetical situation : If I don’t have time to go to the movies, but I actually want
to go, I say:
If I had the time, I would go.
( I know I don’t have time, and therefore, I can’t go to the movies.)
This sentences is contrary to fact because I cannot go.
If today were Saturday, we could go to the beach.
( Today is not Saturday, so we can’t go to the beach.)
The if clause can some first or last in the sentences with no change in meaning. Notice that when the if clause comes first, it is followed by a comma.
If we didn’t have to study, we could go out tonight.
We could go out tonight if we didn’t have to study .
(Both sentences mean: we can’t go out tonight because we have to study.)
Note : The word If is generally not followed directly by the modal; the modal appears in the other part of the sentences unless there are two modals in one sentences.

If + subject + conjugated verb…+ modal

Subject + modal…+ if …+ conjugated verb….

Note : In the unreal condition, the past tense form of be is always were in a conditional sentences; it can NEVER be was in correct English.

If I were … If we were…
If you were …. If you were…
If he were…
If she were…. If they were…
If it were…

Unreal conditional sentences are difficult for foreign students to understand because it seems that the truth value of a sentences is the opposite of the sentence appears. If a verb in an unreal conditional sentence is negative, the meaning is actually positive; if a verb is positive, the meaning is actually negative.
If I were rich, I would travel around the world.
(I am not rich). ( I’m not going to travel around the world.)
If I hadn’t been in a hurry, I would have spilled the milk.
( I was in a hurry.) ( I spilled the milk.).

The following rules will guide you in deciding which tense to use in conditional sentences. Remember :
Past perfect = had + [ verb in past participle ]
Modal + perfect = modal + have + [verb in past participle]
Remember that the following rules can be reserved. The if clause can go either at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence


{will }
{can }
If + subject + simple present tense…+ {may } + [ verb in simple form ]
{must }

If I have the money, I will buy a new car.
We will have plenty of time to finish the project before dinner if it is only ten o’clock now.

If + subject + simple present tense…+ simple present tense
If the doctor has morning office hours, he visits his patients in the hospital in the afternoon. ( no modal )
John usually walks to school if he has enough time.

If + subject + simple present tense….+ command form*…
*Remember that the command form consists of the simple form of the verb.
If you go to the Post Office, please mail this letter for me.
Please call me if you hear from Jane.



{ would }
If + subject + simple past tense …+ { could } + [ verb in simple form ]
{ might }

If I had the time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend.
(I don’t have the time.) ( I’m not going to the beach with you.)
If he didn’t speak so quickly, you could understand him.
(He speaks very quickly.) ( You can’t understand him.)


{ would }
If + subject + past perfect…+ { could } + have + [verb in past participle]
{ might }

If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(We didn’t know that you were there.) ( We didn’t write you a letter.)
She would have sold the house if she had found the right buyer.
(She didn’t sell the house.) (She didn’t find the right buyer.)
(We lost our way.) ( We didn’t arrive early.)
Note; It is also possible to indicate a past unreal condition without using the word if. In this case, the auxiliary had is placed before, rather than after, the subject. This clause will usually come first in the sentence.

Had + subject + [ verb in past participle ]

Had we known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
Had she found the right buyer, she would have sold the house.

The above rules indicate the most common methods of using tenses in conditional sentences. However, if the two actions clearly happened at quite different times, the verbs should show that difference.

Less common : If she had seen the movie, she would tell you.
past future
More common : If she had seen the movie, she would have told you.
Past past


These conjunctions indicate something unreal or contrary to fact and thus are very similar in form to conditional sentences. The verb which follows these conjunctions must be in the past perfect. Remember that the past tense of be in a contrary to fact statement must be were and NEVER was.

{ as if }
Subject + verb ( present ) + { as though} + subject + verb ( past )…

The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer.
(It is not winter )
Angelique walks as though she studied modeling.
( She didn’t study modeling.)

{ as if }
Subject + verb ( past ) + { as though } + subject + verb ( past perfect )…

Betty talked about the contest as if she had won the grad prize.
( She didn’t win the grand prize.)
Jeff looked as if he had seen a ghost.
(He didn’t see a ghost.)
Note : The two preceding rules apply only when as if or as though indicates a contrary to fact meaning. At times, they do not have that meaning and then would not be followed by these tenses.
He looks as if he has finished the test.
( Perhaps he has finished.)
He looked as though he was leaving.
( Perhaps he was leaving.)

universitas pamulang teknik mesin






UNIVERSITAS PAMULANG merupakan salah satu perguruan tinggi yang ada di wilayah propinsi Banten tepatnya berada di jalan Surya Kencana depan Polsek Metropolitan Pamulang Kec.Pamulang Kab.Tamgerang .

Kami mahasiswa-mahasiswa Teknik Mesin Angkatan II berusaha untuk memberikan kontribusi yang terbaik untuk kampus kami tercinta.

Untuk menjaga persahabatan biasanya kami bermain futsal baik sesama teman satu kelas ataupun bermain futsal melawan jurusan lain yang penting tetap menjunjung tinggi sportifitas.

Team Futsal kami ;

1. Kiper ; Muji

2. Bek : Djarot

3. Bek : Udin

4. Sayap kiri : Romlih

5. Sayap kanan: Yayat

6.Penyerang : Johan ( kapten)

Cadangan :

  1. Uu

  2. Sopari

  3. P” Dasep

  4. Arief

  5. Gono

  6. yurohman

  7. Wahyu


Sehubungan dengan adanya keterbatasan data yang ada pada kami sehungga tidak dapat kami tampilkan semua profil mahasiswa teknik mesin angkatan II .